“The quantum of gold import is a clear indication that a large section of the community wants investment in a dead asset only with the expectation that the value would appreciate. Time is ripe to motivate our educated upper middle class to climb from saving mode to wealth generation mode. My request to financial analysts and other experts and leaders in this field is to ensure that we can create confidence in the market, spread financial literacy and merit of investment.”
Finance Minister Pranab Mukherji speaking in June, 2012
The Hon’ble Finance Minister was echoing the sentiments of the official establishment and the mainstream economists who have always been critical of the India’s age-old love for gold. The immediate provocation was the release of figures for FY 2011-12 that showed an alarming increase of current account deficit (excess of total imports over exports) to 4.2% of the GDP and the primary culprit identified was gold imports that had grown more than 40% over the earlier year to cross Rs. 3 lakh crores, keeping the gold import bill well ensconced at second place, with only the import bill for petroleum products being higher.
The mainstream economists dislike gold for several other reasons. It is considered to be a non productive asset in the sense that unlike share purchase or bank deposit that are used by the recipient to finance further economic activity, gold is either worn as an ornament, or else is kept usually in a locker for safety. Jewellery, or even coins or bars purchased as investment, are certainly the end product of an economic activity comprising of their manufacture and sale. But with the act of purchase by the customer, though very much visible as adornments in marriage and other functions, they go out of circulation as far as the economic field is concerned.
Another cause of antipathy of the official machinery for investment in gold is that purchase and sale is mostly in cash leading to avoidance of state duties by the seller and hoarding of black money in the form of gold by the buyer. Efforts to dissuade investment in gold by the Government by imposing higher duties and restriction of free trade in gold has invariably resulted in price differential between the gold legally available in the country and that provided by the parallel economy run by smugglers and hawala racketeers. Giving such characters the space to operate is obviously not in national interest. It is also a historical fact that gold control has never worked.
India imported around a thousand tonnes of gold in FY 2011-12, which is the highest in the world and accounts for a third of the total global demand for gold. During the same period the total domestic production of gold was a mere two tonnes. No one knows how much gold is available today with Indian households but reliable estimates place it in excess of 18,000 tonnes. Domestic production has always been meager. It certainly is intriguing that as much as ten percent of the total global stock of over ground gold has, over time, found its way to the Indian households. The reason was a favourable balance of payments situation through most of Indian history. With exports being more than imports, the surplus found its way into the country, in the coveted form of gold.
To comprehend the Indian fascination for gold, relevant indicators could be the fact that Sanskrit has numerous words for gold such as swarna, kanak, and kanchan while the ancient scriptures, statues and paintings demonstrate elaborate jewellery regularly worn by women and also the men. During the Mughal rule, large estates reverted back to the state on the demise of the principal and legal heirs could request inheritance only on payment of dues to the state and, possibly, bribes to the concerned officials. This encouraged conversion of assets into more discreet forms such as gold, silver and precious stones, which could be conveniently kept out of sight of the officials.
Gold, till date, is considered an excellent store of value, being relatively compact in volume, a status symbol and a hedge against inflation and, quite liquid in the sense that it can be exchanged for money easily. Even for the not so well to do, it can be worn on person, ensuring safety from theft, can be carried easily when fleeing from distress and can be converted into money or other assets whenever required. Girls, not being customarily entitled to a share in parental assets, get their portion by way of dowry, which contributes to their future financial security.
Unlike the developed world India does not have social security systems of free education, access to health care and old age pensions. It does have, at thirty percent, one of the highest rates of savings in the world and a third of that is estimated to go into investment in gold. Besides the status symbol of wearing heavy jewellery, gold ornaments have in India always been considered as an investment for tiding over potential financial calamities. The concept of insurance for financially securing the future is an integral component of the investment in gold and, with gold prices keeping pace with inflation, the quantum set aside in gold remains intact unlike other currency denominated financial assets.
Policy ought to work with the given parameters rather than attempt to reinvent a new Indian. Barriers to free trade in gold are best avoided, as it would only push the market to the undesirable parallel economy. Investment in electronic gold through exchange traded funds could be encouraged so that both the sale and purchase are accounted for while retaining the multiple advantages of investment in gold. The negative balance of payments is a problem for the country and can be countered by weaning the population gradually away from gold. For the illiterate poor, access to financial assets may be made simpler with minimal paper work and without the onerous KYC norms prevalent today. Returns from alternate financial assets must be assured, possibly through sovereign guarantee, and the quantum of return must be adequate to counter inflation. Viable alternate avenues for investment must be offered that can compete with gold instead of recourse to the insensitive official diktat.
It is possible to reach Ladakh by air from Delhi or Srinagar and within Ladakh there is a decent network of roads through the summer months, painstakingly maintained by the Army’s Border Roads Organisation.
Road repair in progress near Khardung la pass
The most comfortable option of travelling around is in a hired SUV though, one has to keep in mind, that taxis registered in Leh or Kargil are permitted to operate only within their respective areas other than point-to-point dropping. No such restrictions are there for private vehicles.
Cyclist on his way down from Khardung la pass
More adventurous ways of getting around are by motorcycles (Royal Enfield Bullets, almost exclusively), bicycle (popular in the Leh-Khardungla circuit), kayaks and Gemini boats (popular in the Zanskar area) and trekking.
Rafting and kayaking on the Zanskar river
Leh alone has some fancy options for stay and in most other places the hotels are fairly basic, though usually neat and clean. Outlying areas such as Pangong Lake or Turtuk may have only tented accommodation.
Hotel De Zojila at Kargil
North Indian food, with some western continental inputs, is normally served in the hotels while Maggi noodles and soup are common on the roadside. We did not trust the local water and depended entirely on packaged bottled water. Incidentally, though generally cold, the consumption of water is fairly high because of the dryness of the atmosphere and care is recommended for proper disposal of empty bottles.
Me emerging from another round of photography
Altitude sickness can be an issue if one flies into Leh from the plains. Though Leh is more than 11,000 feet above the sea level, the shortage of oxygen is more pronounced because of the general lack of vegetation. We preferred to drive in from Srinagar giving our bodies enough time to acclimatise.
My wife, Iti in the snow at Khardung la
The road from Manali takes similar time but is a little rougher. We kept our visit to the Pangong lake towards the end of our trip as it is more than 14,000 feet high. The Nubra valley, being mostly less than 10,000 feet above MSL was placed earlier in our itinerary.
My wife and our two sons
The generally clear skies coupled with the pollution free air means that the sun is bright and the ultraviolet rays can do some serious damage to the skin.
My wife Iti breaking icicles
……….and then playing with the ice swords
I got severely sun burnt at the Khardung la pass because the snow clad surroundings and the bitter cold sent me seeking the warmth of the sunlight without realising that even in that environment sun burn is common. My wife was wiser – seeking shade wherever possible, covering her face with a shawl, wearing sunglasses and regularly applying sun block cream.
Staying on the shore of the Pangong Lake with the strong wind flapping the sides of the tent we were made acutely aware of the harshness of the Ladakh landscape and the modest nature of the infrastructure available. However, adequately prepared, travelling around Ladakh can be a wonderful enriching experience. I have no doubt in my mind that Ladakh certainly is the Mecca for landscape photography.
Sunrise over Leh
Namgyal Tsemo Monastery above Leh
Likir Monastery near Leh
Shergol Monastery across the Wakha river on the Kargil – Leh highway
Diskit Monastery in the Nubra Valley
Basgo Monastery and Palace complex
Chemrey Monastery near Leh
Thiksey Monastery near Leh
Stupas have been a part of the traditional Indian Buddhism as repository of the mortal remains of Buddha. In Ladakh, construction of stupa is an act of piety. Both large elaborate ornate stupas have been constructed as well as more modest structures, and at the lowest level are the pile of stones and flat pebbles that reiterate the builder’s belief in the religion.
Row of magnificent stupas near Leh
Small stupa or Chorten near Basgo
Another revered concept in Ladakh Buddhism is Bodhisatva, an enlightened soul capable of Nirvana but opting to stay back in the world in order to help others on the path to Buddhahood. Many monasteries also have a figure of Maitreya Buddha outside and facing the Gompa. This version of Buddha is the future Buddha who the scriptures predict will come back for the salvation of mankind, once the teachings of Buddha have been forgotten.
Maitreya Buddha statue outside Diskit Monastery
The organization of Lamayuru village
The physical organisation of the villages is typically agricultural fields in the relatively flat lands next to the local stream, with houses clambering up the slope and the whole settlement culminating in a monastery perched on a crag overlooking the whole community.
Lamas watching the dance drama at Hemis
Lamas, or monks, looking after the monastery function, as astrologers decide the appropriate dates for sowing, harvesting or commencing a long journey, preside over functions associated with birth, death or marriage and, in general, ensure the spiritual well being of the community.
Almost every family contributes a son or a daughter to the religious order who, thereafter, becomes a monk or a nun, leads a life of celibacy and spiritual training pursued, often, in the earlier days, at religious centres in Tibet.
Kids will be kids even if they are monks ! Cricket involving one bowler and three batsmen
The celibate religious order taking away almost a tenth of the population, combined with, a loosely practised polyandry, whereby only one son or daughter, in any particular generation got married served to prevent division of agricultural land into economically unviable units and also managed to keep the population in check and in tune with the low carrying capacity of the resources of the region.
Festival held in the courtyard of Hemis Monastery
During the winter months, when the agricultural operations are at a standstill, most monasteries have their own two day festival based on specific dates of the Tibetan calendar. Hemis, near Leh and one of the richest monasteries, modified this and holds its festival in summer and has, accordingly, become famous with the tourists. Some other monasteries appear to be following suit.
Performers with their masks still on resting in between their dance
These festivals, where typically monks attired in rich brocade gowns and fearful masks enact an elaborate dance drama; narrating the age-old story of the victory of good over evil.
The symbolism, typical of the tantrik version of Vajrayana Buddhism practised in Ladakh, has made the actual story secondary to the stylised rythmic movements to the accompaniment of the droning sound of chanting of hymns, drums, cymbals and long horns.
The vestiges of the pre-Buddhist shamanistic Bon faith make their appearance as grotesque masks worn by the performers, leading the early Western explorers to describe these festival as ‘devil dances’.